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Sunday, March 19, 2017


Thang Deih Lian (Davidlianno) 

Page 2 of 141 THE GREAT REVIVAL OF 1973 IN TEDIM, MYANMAR (Already uploaded in Torch Trinity Graduate University November 26, 2015 Introduction Revivals in Myanmar have often been a regular feature of the evangelist enterprise. Such as the revival of 1973 in Tedim region of Myanmar was a substantially eminent among the Zomi Christian history.
Deficient commitments, lacking knowledge about the Bible particularly on Salvation and spiritual declines provided a significant setting for the Revival. It sprang spontaneously from a revivalist, equipper, and transformer Hau Lian Kham, a series of prayer meeting and Bible study and spread across the Tedim regions. Revival: What is it? I will use revival in a general term in this paper. Revival is the presence-revealing and power-manifesting of God which produces extraordinary results. It is a genuine experience of power encountered. It is not merely an emotional expression of “howling and sobbing” before God. It is “not what we do but what we receive” from above. The goal of revival is accomplished when the individual and the community are transformed into Christness. Moreover, revival is total restoration. This is biblical revivalism which is contrary to mysticism. “Mysticism centered on human feeling and emotion. It often results in crass and false doctrine.” 1 Above all, genuine revival is the work of the Holy Spirit. Martyn Lloyd-Jones stated that, A revival is something that can never be arranged and organized by men. A revival is the result of the direct action of the Holy Ghost in authority and power. A revival does not just mean preaching the gospel with the result that a number of people are converted. A revival means the Holy Ghost descending upon a Church or a community or a countryside in power and in might, in an unmistakable manner, breaking men down, and perhaps even casting them physically to the ground. It leads to agonies of repentance and longings for Christ and for peace and salvation. That is what is meant by revival.2 Factors Fostering to the Great Revival Since the arrival of Christian mission in Tedim region, the membership of Zomi Christian was gradually increased. Dr. Cin D. Kham said, “Many Chins3 were converted 1 Herman Hanko, “Ought the Church to Pray for Revival?,” the Trinity Review, (May June, 1991): 6, accessed November 9, 2015, 200079a%20OughttheChurchtoPrayforRevival.pdf. 2 D. M. Lloyd-Jones, Authority (Edinburgh: Banner of Truth, 1984), 93. 3 Zomi is the real name for Chin. Page 2 of 14

Page 3 of 142 to Christ through the labor of the American Baptist missionaries as well as other pioneers.” 4 However, Christian nominalism has turned the thoughts of Zomi Christians away from the things of God. “Nominal Christians are church-goers or otherwise religious people whose ‘faith’ does not go beyond being identified with a church, Christian group, or denomination. They are Christians in name only; Christ has no bearing in their lives.”5 Accordingly, the greater defects for this Zomis’ spiritual conditions was the leadership’s failures who were the victims of religious nominalism. Concerning nominalism, Dr. Tite Tiénou mentioned that, “Nominalism occurs when people identify themselves with a cause without clear understanding of it or serious commitment to it. Nominalism is a widespread religious phenomenon today. It affects most of the known religions of the world...”6 Hau Lian Kham (1944-1995), who was often referred to as the “John Wesley of Zomi (Chin),”7 was a prominent minister among the Zomi; and discovered the mark of spiritual immaturities in his ministry. Furthermore, according to Cin K. Khai, Kham discovered that the church members were nominal and weak in their faith, having little knowledge about the salvation of Christ, lacking real commitment.8 The influence of Modernism and Liberalism also caused the spiritual immaturities and declined. 

Many animist Zomis converted into Christianity just for attainment better livelihoods. As a result, genuine conversion was ambiguous.9 Many of them were “lukewarm, spiritually stagnant and even dead.” “To make matters worse, liberalism has slowly influenced the teachings in Bible schools in Myanmar so that the ministries of trained pastors have become more like social gospel than evangelistic.”10 Moreover, in many occasions the issues of sins were not seriously taking care of. Leonard Ravenhill said, “Sinned as we have as a nation, yet to our sin we have added pride in our sinning. The world has lost the power to blush over its vice; the church has lost her power to weep over it.”11 This is definitely true for the churches of Zomi. Hence, the Zomi revivalists discovered the initial need in such situations was not social gospel and not more Christians, but transformed-Christians. Another prominent factor according to Rev. Dr. Chin Do Kham in his writing “The Renewal Movement among the Chins” was, 4 Cin Do Kham, “The Untold Story: the Impact of Revival among the Chin People in Myanmar (Burma),” Journal of Asian Mission 1, no. 2 (1999): 217. 5 “What is Nominalism? What is a Nominalist?,”, accessed November 9, 2015, 6 Dr. Tite Tiénou, “Christian Nominalism Causes and Cures,” Alliance World Fellowship, accessed November 9, 2015, 7 Chin Khua Khai, “Legacy of Hau Lian Kham (1944–1995): A Revivalist, Equipper, and Transformer for the Zomi-Chin People of Myanmar,” AJPS 4, no. 1 (2001): 99. 8 Khai, “Legacy of Hau Lian Kham,” 102. 9 Rev. Go Za Nang and Rev. Thuam Go Am, Zogam Kha Khanlawhna leh AG (Sagaing: Kalay, Agape Ministries Center, 2010), 16; and Suak Za Go, Tedim Section Tangthu (Sample) (Yangon, 2007). The translations from this book are mine. 10 Do Kham, “The Untold Story,” Journal of Asian Mission 1, no. 2 (1999): 217. 11 Leonard Ravenhill, Revival Praying (Minneapolis: Bethany House Publishers, 1962), 22. 

Page 4 of 143 After a few decades of rapid growth in the Baptist churches in Chin Hills, many church leaders and members were confined in the “foreign missionary syndrome.” Whatever the missionary said or practiced was considered the only way. Church by-laws and regulations became more important than the teachings of the Bible. The church went through the sickness of nominalism. Because of the strong Baptist tradition introduced in local churches, the Baptist way was perceived to be the only way. Church leaders were opposed to the message of salvation by faith through grace. However, the Lord raised young people within the Baptist churches to ignite the fire of revival which caused much headache for the leadership.12 Finally, the factor that fostered the great revival was the leadership of a young man Hau Lian Kham. Being raised in a pious family, Kham was a committed Christian since childhood. God-fearing in attitude, obedience, sincerity, friendliness, and humility were revealing marks in his life. He was a Bible lover, active churchgoer, and even a choirmaster. He was a genius in widespread reading, especially of Christian books. More than anything, he had a strong desire to serve the Lord as a full-time minister from his youth.13 Kham was influenced by Timothy from the Bible and the great evangelist Billy Graham. He was a gifted preacher, teacher and worshiper. Kham’s preaching were centered on Christ, the power of the Holy Spirit, the life of prayer, importance of reading the Bible, holiness and joy. “Kham was the pioneer leader of the renewal movement among the Zomis. A ‘burden for souls’ was his motivating factor. He was convinced that soul winning was the most important task under heaven.”14 Factors Contributing to the Great Revival In 1971, Kham had tasted a portion of the coming great revival while he was pastoring Cope Memorial Baptist Church (CMBC). Revival initiated when he preached the sermons on conversion and the second coming of Christ weekly. As a result, the church membership grew from 400 to 70015 and later “1000 within a few months.”16 Kham experienced the effectiveness of preaching and the role of the Holy Spirit were inseparable. He served the church with fasting, prayer and fervent preaching. “His preaching was persuasive, forceful, and biblical. When preaching, he always referred to the authority of the word of God, often stating, ‘The Bible says....’ His frequent use of body movement gave him the title, “The Action Preacher.” With all of these qualities, his method was a breakthrough for contemporary preaching” 17 primarily for the great revival of 1973 in Tedim. Moreover, Khai professed that Kham was gifted in teaching and music, art, and literature. As a result of his teachings, church attendance increased even in his early ministry. News about his ministry was heard from the neighboring towns and they were persuaded to attend Church and his Bible study classes.18 He was 12 Do Kham, “The Untold Story,” Journal of Asian Mission 1, no. 2 (1999): 215. 13 Khai, “Legacy of Hau Lian Kham,” 102. 14 Khai, “Legacy of Hau Lian Kham,” 103. 15 Nang, Zogam Kha Khanlawhna leh AG, 24. 16 Do Kham, “The Untold Story,” Journal of Asian Mission 1, no. 2 (1999): 218. 17 Khai, “Legacy of Hau Lian Kham,” 103. 18 Khai, “Legacy of Hau Lian Kham,” 103. 

Page 5 of 144 also creative in illustrating the biblical stories into practical contextual dramas such as the life of Christ. Kham’s translation on Western Gospel songs into Tedim dialect were greatly utilized in the Churches’ choirs. The second factor that contributed to the great revival of 1973 came as a result of occasional prayer meetings held at first by a few committed church–men and women. “Kham believed that prayer is a key to renewal. He and his supporters learned from historical evidences and personal witnesses that renewal often takes place when the people of God pray and seek him.”19 In January 27 of 1973 under the leadership of Kham, the Zomi Christians held successive daily prayer meetings from 12:45 a.m. to 3:00 a.m. at Bo Kam Cin Hang’s home which made a convinced contribution to the great revival. Their specific prayer was the conversion of souls at least 10,000 from Tedim region.20 “They spent hours on their knees, crying to God for days and nights. God answered their fervent prayers,”21 that definite plans to promote revival was formulated in “February 2-3, 1973. And it was the very first great open-air revival meeting in Tedim.” 22 Believing an open-air crusade would be the most appropriate strategy to reach the common people “in February 15, 1973, Hau Lian Kham, Gin Khan Kham, Kham Khen Mang and Cin Khen Kham discussed the procedures and agendas for the open- air crusade. They started building the stage for the open-air crusade on April 27, 1973”23 and then arranged for the meeting by some of the church leaders. They began advertising and inviting people. They also sent prayer requests to overseas, particular to America. In April 30, 1973 they launched the first open-air crusade thru about 2000 observes. Khai stated that, “...The revivalist and his supporters launched a week-long crusade on April 30, 1973. They raised a bamboo pulpit on a football field where he preached seven nights about the salvation of Christ. 24 Another significant factor contributed to the great revival was passion for the lost. Kham was well known by his famous motto, “To bring as many people as possible to Christ in the shortest possible time.”25 He prioritized, throughout his ministry, witnessing the lost and equipping spiritual leaders. He was convinced that the task of winning souls will be accomplished through God’s kind of love. Hence, he often travelled from town to town with his gospel team many miles on foot to share the love of Christ. Kham’s giftedness on music and singing was a great support for his ministerial effectiveness. Kham was keen to discern the spiritual conditions of the believers. He as mentioned earlier, beginning from the early stage of his ministry, discovered the gradual influence of modernism upon the Zomis, the believers’ lacking commitment to the 19 Khai, “Legacy of Hau Lian Kham,” 103. 20 Nang, Zogam Kha Khanlawhna leh AG, 24. 21 Do Kham, “The Untold Story,” Journal of Asian Mission 1, no. 2 (1999): 218. 22 Nang, Zogam Kha Khanlawhna leh AG, 25. 23 Nang, Zogam Kha Khanlawhna leh AG, 25. 24 Khai, “Legacy of Hau Lian Kham,” 104. 25 Hau L. Kham, Personal Diary, January 18, 1995 quoted in Khai, “Legacy of Hau Lian Kham,” 104. 

Page 6 of 145 biblical mandates and religious nominalism. Kham’s understanding of such situations was the believers’ lacking experience of radical conversion. Accordingly, regardless of doctrinal and denominational variances, Kham desired to hold a historic revival meeting. Finally, another vital factor contributing to the great revival was intensive sermons through prayer that were delivered during the seven days of the great revival meeting. Here are the sermons: “1) Will God pass you by? 2) Why is it call the Gospel? 3) The Greatest sin, 4) Can the Law save us? 5) Excuse, 6) Seven forms of temptations, and 7) When Jesus comes back...” 26 Kham’s revivalist sermons were convincing, exclamatory, and biblical. Particularly, as Kham stressed the imminent Second Coming of Christ, people were captivated by his eschatological explanation, for it provided them with a hope for the future. He tensed the divine judgment, the eschatological assurance and the pureness of the church in the end time. Eventually, this message was a stern reality for the Zomi people of the 1970s. Moreover, it would not be incorrect to say that Kham’s sermons were the reflection of his personality and theology. He had the same persona with the great evangelist Pastor Ding Limei from Shandong, China (1871-1936). “Pastor Ding is a man of vision, of reality, of conviction, and of prayer. He has a large positive faith and is all aflame with his vital, virile message. 

A friend of revival religion, he has the power of convincing and converting sinners from the error of their way.”27 Characteristics of the Great Revival The great revival of 1973 was the result of passion, prayer, preparation, praise and preaching. The revival meeting was preceded by days of prayer and fasting. One of the prominent revivalists in the Christian history “Jonathan Edwards believed that corporate prayer was more effective than just the combined prayers of individuals.” 28 It is true since it was experienced as the impact of the historic great awakenings. Accordingly, Kham developed the corporate prayer for the revival meeting, and he learned the indispensable need of surrendering ‘self’ to the work of the Holy Spirit. This pioneer crusade was characterized by breakthroughs, a charismatic-style singing of revival choruses, a style in preaching the message that had direct implication upon the hearers, the altar call for repentance and acceptance of Christ, and face-to-face discussion of the personal assurance of salvation. These types of events marked a new breakthrough in ministry.29 26 I quoted these sermon titles from the book “Zogam Kha Khanlawhna leh AG, 2010” edited by Rev. Go Za Nang. The translations are mine. For further see at, Rev. Go Za Nang and Rev. Thuam Go Am, Zogam Kha Khanlawhna leh AG (Sagaing: Kalay, Agape Ministries Center, 2010), 26-27. 27 O. Braskamp, “The Evangelist Ding Li Mei: The Moody of China,” The Chinese Recorder 47, no. 7 (July 1916): 500. 28 Gerald McDermott, “What Can We Learn from the 18th Century Awakening,” in America, Return to God, ed. Thomas Wang (Sunnyvale: Great Commission Center International, 2006), 108. 29 Khai, “Legacy of Hau Lian Kham,” 104. 

Page 7 of 146 Preaching was one of the prime factors in the meeting. The main speaker Pastor Hau Lian Kham was aware to preach on the necessity of an awakening. “Preaching aggressively and persuasively for the first two nights did not draw a single sinner to the Lord. However, surrendering and trusting in the Holy Spirit made the difference. A young man by the name Kham Lian Khup turned and stepped forward in the altar call and accepted Christ as his Savior and Lord on the third night.” 30 Khai noted that “the bold decision of this young man was a breakthrough that encouraged many to do the same in the days that followed. Converts were added every day. Eventually, the pioneer crusade was the recognized launching pad of the renewal movement.” 31 The word “born again” became a catchword throughout the renewal movement. The born-again believers spread the gospel by preaching, teaching, and counseling. Repentance for sins, confession of Christ as Savior and Lord, baptism in water as a witness of discipleship, studying the Bible, praying, and sharing the word of God were phenomenon indicative of this renewal.32 The meeting was significant for its non-sectarian emphasis. Different denominations were represented together in union. However, it is not a new phenomenon. Unity in evangelism has been the characteristic of revival movements in the past. A.W. Tozer said, “Unity is necessary for the outpouring of the Spirit of God. A persistence of unity allows the Holy Spirit to move in revival.”33 Likewise, in 1973 as the people came together in unity, the Spirit of God humbled and convicted them. The flame spread. The attendance was progressively increased each day. “The conviction of the Holy Spirit was so strong people would weep, cry, dance, and laugh. Thousands of people repented and trusted Christ.” 34 Dr. Cin D. Kham said, “Gang members, thieves and drunkards were converted and they gave their testimonies openly. 

Many nominal Christians received the experience of the new life in Christ and the baptism of the Holy Spirit throughout the revival.” 35 “Being ‘born again’ was a topic of discussion in offices, schools, market places and on the streets.”36 People were amazed at the new converts who formerly had been gang members, drunkards, thieves 30 Khai, “Legacy of Hau Lian Kham,” 104 quoted from Publication Committee, EBC Taangthu: History of the Evangelical Baptist Conference (in Tedim-Chin) (Tedim, Myanmar: EBC Church, 1990), 29. 31 Khai, “Legacy of Hau Lian Kham,” 104. 32 Khai, “Legacy of Hau Lian Kham,” 104-105. 33 A.W. Tozer, “Unity that Brings Revival,” Discipleship Library, accessed November 11, 2015, http:// 34 William (Winkie) Pratney, Tamara S. Winslow, and Steve Hill, Revival Study Bible (Singapore: Armour Publishing Pte Ltd, 2010), 204. 35 Do Kham, “The Untold Story,” Journal of Asian Mission 1, no. 2 (1999): 218-19. 36 Chin Khua Khai, “The Assemblies of God and Pentecostalism in Myanmar,” in Asian and Pentecostal: the Charismatic Face of Christianity in Asia, ed. Allan Anderson and Edmond Tang (Eugene: Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2011), 217.

Page 8 of 147 and so on, but who now showed a total turn-around in their lives.” 37 Instantly, right after this mass conversion, the Bible and Christian literatures were remarkably sold out. Pum Za Thang who was one of the ministers during the revival meeting shared his personal experiences about the characteristic of the revival that, The wonder of this revival meeting I had come across was the people eagerness to heed the message of the Gospel and passion to share the message wherever they went. Shops, department stores, hotels, schools, government offices, and even the bars became places for discussing the Bible. People were very attentive to the messages I shared and they were not satisfied enough to listen the Word of God just for once or twice. I felt like they wanted to hear it for the whole hours repeatedly without reluctance. I myself even desired to hear the message I shared, again and again. I recognized that the Holy Spirit is at present in my ministry of counseling and sharing the Word of God. As a result, the mass of people responded the ‘alter-call’ and many of them experienced conversions and transformations. Henceforth, I understood that as the hen covered her eggs for hatching chicks, the Holy Spirit covered Tedim region in particular time of revival.38 Another tremendous characteristic of this revival was ‘experiencing baptism in the Holy Spirit.’ As for the revival of 1973 in Tedim, experiencing ‘baptism in the Holy Spirit’ was a fresh phenomenon by many, and yet it was a significant characteristic of this meeting. 

The Holy Spirit had enabled many of them to “speak in tongues.” 39 “Young boys and girls of twelve to fifteen years of age saw visions, older people saw dreams. As they shared with people in public gatherings, sinners were convicted of their sins and turn to Christ.”40 As mentioned earlier, people would weep, cry, dance, and laugh. It was a strange experience for many observers. As for the church leaders from the conservative wings, they were not willing to surrender for the new-manifested outpouring of the Holy Spirit. Conversely, it was not a new phenomenon in the historic revival movements in Christian history. For instance, in the intense spiritual awakening among ‘radical evangelicals’ “People experienced dreams, visions, prophecy, tongues and interpretations during religious revivals in different parts of the world.”41 In spite of differences in denominations, new believers experienced baptism in the Holy Spirit and 37 Chin Khua Khai, The Cross Amid Pagodas (Baguio, APTS Press, 1995), 62. 38 Pum Za Thang’s written letter (Bangalore, India: October 17, 2007), quoted in Rev. Go Za Nang and Rev. Thuam Go Am, Zogam Kha Khanlawhna leh AG (Sagaing: Kalay, Agape Ministries Center, 2010), 28. The translations from this book are mine. 39 Historically, speaking in tongues and baptism in the Holy Spirit was often related. 

For instance, Tongues- speaking was a significant feature of Azusa Street Revival. Tongues were regarded as (1) a sign of baptism in the Holy Spirit; (2) a sign of the promised outpouring of the Holy Spirit, a revival of the church, and nearness of Christ’s coming; and (3) a gift given to certain believers at the direction of the Holy Spirit. See more at, Harold D. Hunter and Cecil M. Robeck Jr., the Azusa Street Revival and its Legacy (Eugene: Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2006), 251. 40 Do Kham, “The Untold Story,” Journal of Asian Mission 1, no. 2 (1999): 219. 41 R. G. Tiedemann, “Protestant Revivals in China with Particular Reference to Shandong Province,” Studies in World Christianity 18, no. 3 (2012): 220. (213-236) 

Page 9 of 148 received gift of tongues as common experiences. Gordon D. Fee has stated is accorded with Pentecostals among the Chins. He stated that, Traditionally, they have put their overall theological emphasis precisely where other evangelicals do on the person and work of Christ. Nonetheless, the public expression of tongues, which has so often characterized Pentecostal worship, has also served as much as anything else to distinguish Pentecostals, and very often therefore to separate them, from their other brothers and sisters in Christ.42 Indeed in the Tedim revival of 1973, some of the bystanders had a skeptical reflection of Kham’s ministry. However, ever since expecting the sooner fading of the movement, they decided to stand to one-side and let the movement run its course. Finally, one more prominent characteristic of the revival meeting was repentance and confession of sins. Zomis are the tribal people. They were animists and awfully superstitious. The first missionary Arthur Carson reported his first visit to the Zomi and he said, “They are very drunken,43 exceedingly savage-looking, being head hunters....”44 Moreover, the dimension of ethnic conflicts were deeply rooted within the diverse groups of Zomi’s tribes. 

Though the Christian missions had impacted their beliefs and practices since 1904, many of them were not fully transformed by the Gospel. As years went on, as mentioned earlier nominalism had increased. The influence of liberalism, as mentioned earlier, had sprung from 1960s. Besides, some Christians were still living under the influences of their traditional beliefs and practices. In such situations, the Christian leader such as Pastor Hau Lian Kham realized the great need for revival in the land. As a result, they started planning and praying for the revival meeting. The Holy Spirit, the prime mover of sinner’s heart for genuine repentance, convicted many Zomis for their sins. Many of them confessed their sins and God transformed them. This revival became the great turning point for the ministries of the Churches in Tedim, particularly “the preaching of the Gospel spread thought out the Tedim region.”45 The Impact of the Great Revival After this great revival meeting, the great transformation that recorded in the Zomi Christian history was the fervent dialogue of the Gospel. The message of Gospel was the chief-talk among the Zomi Christians wherever they went. The revival spread 42 Gordon D. Fee, “Toward a Pauline Theology of Glossolalia,” in Pentecostalism in Context: Essays in Honor of William Menzies, eds. Wonsuk Ma and Robert P. Menzies (Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press Ltd., 1997) pp. 24-27 quoted in Khai, “Pentecostalism in Myanmar” 2001, accessed November 17, 2015. 43 The Zomi drank Zozu which was a traditional liquor made of rice, corn, fruits or millet wine. 44 Robert G. Johnson, History of American Baptist Chin Mission (Valley Forge: Robert G. Johnson, 1988), 48. 45 Nang, Zogam Kha Khanlawhna leh AG, 27. 

Page 10 of 149 with wonderful rapidity to Southern and Northern part of Zogam.46 Later, it spread into the territory of Daai Chin47 people48 and the entire northwestern region of the country. The challenging effect of the revival was opposition and resistance from within the same denomination itself. Some of them became anti-revivalism. Classical dissection between “piangthak pawl” and pianglui pawl” emerged. It simply means a sect belongs to “born again” and a sect of “anti-born again.” Piangthak pawl or born again Christians were criticized as heretics. Many doctrinal and practical disputes arose in the Churches. Finally, In December 1974, Pastor Hau Lian Kham was resigned from the Church. Nevertheless the Gospel moved on. The spreading of the Gospel as a result of this revival was continued. Open-air crusades became popularized by the evangelists especially Pastor Hau Lian Kham and “his colleagues conducted open-air crusades to spread the Gospel. He formed an evangelistic team, and they traveled from village to village, town to town to hold crusades and Bible study. Thousands of people repented and trusted Christ.”49 Dr. Do Kham stated that, God raised up individuals like Pum Za Thang Tombing, Phun Duma, Philip Ahone, Khai Khan Suan, and Dam Suan Mung along with Hau Lian Kham to spread revival throughout Chin Hills. In some of their meetings, the conviction of the Holy Spirit was so intense that people were weeping and crying, dancing and laughing in the Holy Spirit.50 This evangelists were self-supporting, self-sustaining, and self-theologizing under the guidance of the Holy Spirit. On “March 1977,” 51 Pastor Hau Lian Kham embraced Assembly of God “for a broader vision of evangelization and deeper spiritual life. Regarding his joining with the Assemblies of God, he once stated, ‘We must keep a large vision of the whole country, even the whole world for the evangelization while starting the work at the local area.’”52 Kham “held the first service on April 3, 1977 with 171 members.” 53 Later it became the leading Pentecostal denomination in Zogam in Myanmar. Furthermore, the Revival of 1973 which was known as a Bible-based, Christ-centered, and Holy Spirit-led revival 46 The whole land of Zomi is called Zogam. Tedim is the majority people who live in Tedim Township. 47 The Daai are different ethnic tribe of Chin, Myanmar. The Daai Chin appear to be of Mongolian, Indo- Chinese, and Tibeto-Burman descent as the other Chin tribes do. The Daai ethnic group is the 32 Chin tribes, which have been registered by the Government of Burma since 1890. The Daai people live in the Mindat, Paletwa, Matupi and Kanpetlet townships of the Southern Chin State, Burma. There are more than 180 Daai villages with a total population of somewhere between 60,000 and 90,000. Their population makes the Daai-Chin the majority tribe in the Southern Chin Hills. Source from: “Daai Chin,” Wikipedia, accessed November 16, 2015, https://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Daai_Chin. 48 Nang, Zogam Kha Khanlawhna leh AG, 27. 49 Tamara S. Winslow, and Steve Hill, Revival Study Bible, 204. 50 Do Kham, “The Untold Story,” Journal of Asian Mission 1, no. 2 (1999): 218. 51 Khup Lian Pau, Laikhak, Gamngai Khual Khanlawhna tawh Kisai a Hong Laikhakna (Yangon: 2008), 6- 7 quoted in Rev. Go Za Nang and Rev. Thuam Go Am, Zogam Kha Khanlawhna leh AG (Sagaing: Kalay, Agape Ministries Center, 2010), 49. The translations from this book are mine. 52 Khai, The Cross Amid Pagodas (Baguio, APTS Press, 1995), 66. 53 “Bethel Assembly of God (BAG) Silver Jubilee Lai, 19” quoted in Nang and Rev. Thuam Go Am, Zogam Kha Khanlawhna leh AG, 51. 

Page 11 of 1410 meeting as the torching light for Pentecostal movement for the upcoming Zomi churches. “Revival led the born-again people to church planting across rural villages and towns.”54 God raised many lay evangelists along with Kham and this zealous evangelists traveled to rural villages to spread the message of Christ. When the people responded, they conducted Bible study and later planted churches. Later, “God has raised several younger Pentecostal preachers like Kam Hau55 and Lang Do Khup who organized and launched crusades at different locations. Sinners were converted, and believers were baptized in the Holy Spirit.”56 The ministry of Lang Do Khup is a charismatic movement in the Baptist church. He had a great turning point in his ministry towards the charismatic fervor. Signs and wonders followed his ministry particularly even the dead man raised from the dead through his prayer.57 There were also other evangelists who performed miracles as they spread the message of Christ. This Pentecostal movement spread through Zomi lay preachers and pastors accompanied by signs, wonders and miracles. Dr. Chin Khua Khai recorded some signs and wonders that, As the answer to believers’ intense prayer, a water-spring broke out in the middle of Tungzang village in 1980. The Tedim AG section celebrated an annual convention at Tungzang. Situated on a mountain, the villagers always have problems not having enough water. Not knowing what to do for a great occasion where 3000 people would gather, believers prayed for rain and water supply. Miraculously, a water spring broke out in the middle of the village on the day the convention began that supplied enough water. The spring still exists today.58 Additionally, many people converted to Christianity as a result of healing and miracles. For instance, Tam Ki was a converted animist from the Mindat in Chin State. He often challenged the animists with the message that God is alive and more powerful than the local gods. One day, as he preached the gospel to the villagers, a group of people plotted to shoot and kill him. But the bullet did not leave the barrel of their weapon. The animistic villagers were so surprised that they all submitted to the preacher and his message. A dead man was brought 54 Do Kham, “The Untold Story,” Journal of Asian Mission 1, no. 2 (1999): 219. 55 Kam Cin Hau’s ministry included many miraculous accounts. He started the “Back to the Bible” ministry in 1987 as a response to his experience of ecstasy, a vision in which he was taken to the heavenly abode of Christ and his angels. He reported on some of his noteworthy crusades. His crusades resulted in adding converts, people being filled with Holy Spirit evidenced by speaking in tongues, being slain in the Spirit, and receiving healing from sicknesses. See further, Khai, “The Assemblies of God and Pentecostalism in Myanmar,” in Asian and Pentecostal: the Charismatic Face of Christianity in Asia, 269. 56 Do Kham, “The Untold Story,” Journal of Asian Mission 1, no. 2 (1999): 220. 57 Khai, “The Assemblies of God and Pentecostalism in Myanmar,” in Asian and Pentecostal: the Charismatic Face of Christianity in Asia, 270. 58 Chin Khua Khai, “Pentecostalism in Myanmar,” Cyberjournal for Pentecostal-Charismatic Research, July 2001, accessed November 17, 2015, 

Page 12 of 1411 back to life on another occasion. All the villagers turned to Christ. Many were saved during the nightly open-air crusade. Many were baptized with the Holy Spirit.59 People experienced genuine deliverance by the Holy Spirit. Traditional festivals, songs, dances, and drinking Zozu were transformed with the Christian forms and meanings. According to Do Kham, The old war songs and secular love songs were replaced by gospel hymns and praise and worship songs. The people who once dance for spirits of rocks and rivers are dancing before the Lord. The gospel message of Jesus Christ enlightens their worldview and assured them of a bright hope for the future to be fellow citizens with saints and members of the household of God.60 Presently, this Pentecostal worship style is found in different denominations within the churches in Myanmar. “Pentecostal worship is a great transforming pattern. They have learned that worship is an essential part of being a Christians and corporate worship a compelling need among believers.” 61 Indeed God had sent revival to the Zomis. 

Revival implants radical transformation in Zomis’ Christians, resulted in the growth of the Pentecostal movement. Ever since the great revival of 1973, the Pentecostal movement has indeed become a great phenomenon for renewal not only in the Zomis’ churches but also in the churches of Myanmar. “The Assemblies of God in Myanmar has added up half of its total membership since the renewal. The United Pentecostal Church and the Foursquare Church have also sprung up as a result of the renewal.”62 Today, this Pentecostal movement is found interdenominationally in Zomi Christian churches. Regardless of diversity, as a result of this renewal, the Pentecostal movement has impacted the church mandates, spiritual dimension of worship, and missional activities among the Zomi churches. What professor Andrew Walls said, “The revival supplied missionaries”63 is practically true for the Zomi churches as a result. 

Finally the renewal had transformed the Zomi’s worldview. Khai stated that, God was seen as the reservoir of blessings. Therefore thanksgiving celebrations toward God for blessings and success were and still are common phenomena in the communities today. Families give their children Christian names in order to express appreciation and acknowledgment of what He has done in a person’s life. Yet another outcome of the renewal is that the need to take the cultural mandate is more recognized among evangelical Pentecostal believers today than ever before. Churches and individual believers continue to establish orphanages, 59 Khai, The Cross Amid Pagodas (Baguio, APTS Press, 1995), 66 quoted in Do Kham, “The Untold Story,” Journal of Asian Mission 1, no. 2 (1999): 220. 60 Do Kham, “The Untold Story,” Journal of Asian Mission 1, no. 2 (1999): 221. 61 Khai, “Pentecostalism in Myanmar” 2001, accessed November 17, 2015. 62 Khai, “Pentecostalism in Myanmar” 2001, accessed November 17, 2015. 63 Andrew F. Walls, The Missionary Movement in Christian History: Studies in the Transmission of Faith (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1996), 80. 

Page 13 of 1412 open private clinics, donate relief funds and take on social responsibilities in their communities.64 Conclusion Though the foreign missionaries had left Myanmar in 1966, they had already laid foundation for the upcoming revival in Zogam. As a result, God brought revival to the Zomis through Pastor Hau Lian Kham. Not only in religious transformation but also “this renewal has had a great social impact among the Zomis such that transformational changes occurred in the cultural subsystems.” 65 The overriding results the great revival of 1973 was conversion, zeal for the spreading of the Gospel, eagerness to hear the Word of God, church growth, social transformation and the birth of Pentecostal movement. This revival affected all classes of the Zomi ethnics. The total harvest of the revival was marked that the entire Zogam has been reached through the Gospel today. As a result, Zomi addressed themselves as “Topa mite-Topa ate” which direct translation is: “God’s people-God’s very own possession.” Thus, at the very heart of Zomi today, they consciously avow that “to be a Zomi is to be a Christian.” 

No doubt it is the Holy Spirit that empowered the Gospel’s message for the revivals in this land. Presently, they are knowns as the only tribe that purely claim as a Christian tribe in Myanmar. The mainstream Christian leaders and revivalists in Myanmar are the Zomi. As for Pastor Hau Lian Kham, “he has left his legacy as a revivalist, equipper, and transformer. He was often referred to as the ‘John Wesley’ of Zomi (Chin) because of the similar characters and patterns seen in his leadership, is a noted pastor- evangelist and teacher among the evangelical Pentecostal believers in Myanmar.”66 Kham’s zeal for winning souls motivated the young generations to participate in the ministry for fulfilling the Great Commission of Jesus Christ. The religious leaders or some observers who triggered opposition and resistance concerning the Kham’s revival movement and particularly the spread of Pentecostalism, somewhere in the later situations, had encountered the outpouring of the Holy Spirit. However, the Zomi Christianity is under attacked today by the post-modernism and prosperity gospel. Liberalism has emerged into Zomi Churches. Many of the evangelists and preachers are preaching only “feel-good” messages. The Message of repentance which is the very key of this revival in 1973 was missing in their sermons. Some of them are only seeking for fame, resources and funds. Most of the Zomi leaders are power and position seekers. Churches were planted by the Zomis and yet they have very less motivation of love and passion for the lost instead Christian activities and agendas become the fulfillment of personal ambitions. Moreover, ethnic conflict is the 64 Khai, “Legacy of Hau Lian Kham,” 107. 65 Chin Khua Khai, Dynamics of Renewal: A Historical Movement Among the Zomi in Myanmar (Pasadena: Fuller Theological Seminary, 1999), 354-62. 66 Khai, “Legacy of Hau Lian Kham,” 99. 

Page 14 of 1413 contemporary prevalent issue among the Zomi tribes. Consequently, the revival among the Zomis has been gradually declining. As I am one of the fruits of the revival movement, there is an essential research needed to be done on “how to promote the great revival among Zomi Christianity again?” A quick and embryonic response of mine would be adapting Pastor Hau Lian Kham’s strategies for the great revival of 1973 in Tedim since it was a catalyst that enhanced today’s Zomi Christianity as a whole. Finally, it will also be very valuable to study the role of Zomi Christianity in global Christianity. Virtually no studies have yet been done, and it will be interesting to see what the outcome of such studies will be. 

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